Manuel Roxas administration

From IRAIA Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Major events during the Manuel Roxas administration

The rise of Roxas to the presidency

Roxas was elected as the last president of the Commonwealth government in April 1946, with the help of heavy financial and propaganda support by the U.S. to his electoral campaign. Upon the so-called U.S.-granted independence proclamation on 4 Jul 1946, Roxas automatically became the president of the GRP.

According to the PSR: "His imperialist masters favored him because he could be threatened with prosecution for his pro-Japanese collaboration and he could therefore be bound to bat for the unequal treaties that they wanted to extort in return for a general amnesty exclupating him and others of the ruling classes from the charge of treason." [1], pp.41-42

The national economy

Programs to rehabilitate and reconstruct war-ravaged Philippines began from the administration of Manuel Roxas, mainly through U.S. economic and military aid. The economy faced rising rates of inflation and an unstable Philippine peso.

Pro-US foreign policy

Roxas adopted a thoroughly pro-US foreign policy, based on three principles: (1) maintaining tight and "special" relations with the U.S.; (2) maintenance of friendly relations with the so-called "free world" (that is, except countries ruled by communist parties); and (3) adherence to the objectives of the UN.

Based on such a pro-US foreign policy, Roxas led the GRP in concluding the following treaties and agreements with the U.S.:

  • Treaty of General Relations with the U.S. (4 Jul 1946);
  • War Surplus Property Agreement (11 Sep 1946);
  • Military Bases Agreement (14 Mar 1947);
  • Military Assistance Agreement (21 Mar 1947)

In addition, Roxas and the GRP successfully campaigned to ratify the controversial Parity Amendment to the 1935 Constitution through a nationwide plebiscite on 11 Mar 1947.

The assassination attempt on Roxas

On 10 Mar 1947, the eve of the plebiscite, Roxas had just finished speaking in a pro-Parity Amendment rally at Plaza Miranda when Julio Guillen, a nationalist barber from Tondo who passionately opposed U.S. control over the economy, hurled a grenade on the speaker's platform. The grenade exploded a few feet away from Roxas, who was not hurt. [2]

Corruption scandals

Several scandals involving corruption at the topmost levels of government erupted during the Roxas presidency. Among these were the Surplus War Property scandal, the Chinese immigration quota scandal, and the School Supplies scandal.

On 28 Jan 1948, Roxas (with congressional concurrence) granted general amnesty to Filipinos charged with treason for allegedly serving as Japanese collaborators during Japan's occupation of the country in World War II.

The PKP-led revolutionary movement

Death in office

Roxas died of a heart attack at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga on 16 Apr 1948, after delivering a speech before the U.S. 13th Air Force. [3]

Specific events listed per year

1945 events

See also: 1945

1946 events

See also: 1946

1947 events

See also: 1947

1948 events

See also: 1948